Conditional Sentences

Conditional Sentences

Conditional Sentece কাকে বলে? Conditional Sentece কত প্রকার ও কি কি? গঠন সহ উদাহরণ দাও।

Conditional Sentence:

A conditional sentece is based on the word ‘if’.There are always two parts to a conditional sentence- one part beginning with ‘if’ to describe a possible situation, and the second part which describe the consequence.

অন্যভাবে বলা যায়, যদি sentence এ অবস্থিত দুটি কাজের মধ্যে একটি কাজ হওয়া বা না হওয়া ঐ একই sentence এর অন্য অংশের  কাজ হওয়া বা না হওয়ার উপর নির্ভর করে তাকে Conditional Sentence বলে।

সহজ ভাবে বলা যায়, শর্তমূলক বাক্যকে Conditional Sentence বলে।

এক কথায় বলা যায় if clause যুক্ত বাক্যকে Conditional Sentence বলে।

Example:

  • If it rains, we will get wet.
  • We will play Ludo if it rains.
  • If you eat a lot, you put out on weight.

Conditional Sentence এর প্রকারভেদ-

Conditional Sentence কে চার ভাগে ভাগ করা যায়-

  • 0- Zero Conditional
  • 1- First Conditional
  • 2- Second Conditional
  • 3- Third Conditional

Zero Conditional

The zero conditional is used to make statements about the real world, and often refers to general truths, such as scientific facts.

zero conditional বলতে সাধারণত বাস্তব জগৎ সম্পর্কিত বিবৃতি, চিরন্তন সত্য এই জাতীয় শর্তমূলক বাক্যকে বোঝায়। যেমন- বৈজ্ঞানিক তথ্য।

Structure: If + Present Indefinite/ Simple Present, Present Indefinite

অর্থ্যাৎ zero conditional এর দুই অংশে Present Indefinite tense এ হবে।

Example:

  • If water reaches 100 degrees, it boils.
  • If people eat too much, they get fat.
  • If you touch a fire, you get burned.
  • People die if they don’t eat.
  • You get water if you mix hydrogen and oxygen.
  • Snakes bite if they are scared.
  • If babies are hungry, they cry.
  • If Rakib is out of the office, I take his calls.
  • If people don’t drink water, they die.
  • If I eat too much, I get sick.

First Conditional

শর্ত সাপেক্ষে যে কাজটি ভবিষ্যতে হওয়ার সম্ভাবনা থাকে সাধারণত তাকে First Conditional Sentence বলে।

Structure: If + Present Indefinite, Sub + shall/will/can/may +v1 + ……..

or, Sub+ shall/will/can/may + v1 + …… + if+ sub + v1 + ………..

Example:

  • If it rains, you will get wet.
  • You will get wet if it rains.
  • If Bithi is late again I will be mad.
  • I will be mad if Bithi is late again.
  • If you don’t hurry, you will miss the bus.
  • You will miss the bus if you don’t hurry.
  • If you study hard, you will pass your exams.
  •  If I find your email, I will send you the picture.
  • If it rains, I will stay at home.
  • If I wake up late, I will miss the bus
  • If I pass this exam, I will celebrate.
  • If you practice frequently, you will learn quickly.
  • If you study more, you will pass in the exam.
  • If he comes, I shall go.
  • If we find her address, I will write her.
  • We shall go to the park if you finish the work early.
  • He will pass the examination if he reads attentively.
  • If it rains tomorrow, I shall not go to college.

Second Conditional

If clause-এ এমন শর্ত থাকে, যা বর্তমান বা ভবিষতে পূর্ণ হবে না। If clause-এর এ শর্তগুলো কাল্পনিক, তাই main clause-এ যা উল্লেখ করা হয়, তা কোনদিন ঘটে না বা ঘটবে না।

Structure: If + Sub + V2 + ……….., Sub+ would/could/might + V1+ …………

Or, Sub+ would/could/might + V1+ …………+ if + Sub + V2 + ………..

Example:

  • If it rained, you would get wet.
  • You would get wet if it rained.
  • If she fell, she would hurt herself.
  • If I knew her number, I could ring her.
  • If I had a holiday, I would visit Canada.
  • If I attended your birthday party, I would enjoy a lot.
  • If I won the lottery, I would buy a big house.
  • She would travel all over the world if she were rich.
  • She would pass the exam if she ever studied.
  • If I had more money, I could buy a car.

Third Conditional

এই জাতীয় Condition clause-এ অতীতে কোন ঘটনা বা কাজ সত্য ছিলনা, এমন ঘটনার উল্লেখ থাকে। অর্থাৎ এই Condition দিয়ে  ঐ ধরনের কাজকে বুঝানো হয়, যা অতীতে ঘটতে পারতো কিন্তু ঘটেনি।

Structure: If + Sub+ had + V3 +……..+, + Sub + would have/could have/might have + V3 + ……….
Or, Sub + would have/could have/might have + V3 + ……….+ if + Sub+ had + V3 +……..+
Example:
(a)   If I had left earlier, I wouldn’t have missed my flight.
(b)   If he had talked to me, I would have listened to him.
(c)   If it had rained, you would have gotten wet.
(d)   You would have gotten wet if it had rained.
(e)   You would have passed your exam if you had worked harder.
(f)    If you had worked harder, you would have passed your exam.
(g)   I would have believed you if you hadn’t lied to me before.
(h)   If you hadn’t lied to me before, I would have believed you.
(i)     If she hadn’t gotten sick, she might have won the singing contest.

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